My current interests include employing molecular techniques to such genetic changes in chronic pain states. This summer I studied techniques using PCR to genotype specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of relevant pain-specicific genes viz. BDNF, NTRK2, COMT and TIMP-1 in acute and chronic low back pain subjects as well as healthy volunteers. I also used PCR methods to quantify mRNA expression of 84 pain related genes in these volunteers. These results will inform the relationship between alterations in pain related genes and vulnerability for chronic pain.